Musset, Lucien, Romanische Normandie (West), Echter Verlag, Würzburg, 1989
But how many times has it not happened that, at the end of a great epoch, the force for fundamental innovation was depleted. This also happened in Gothic architecture. At some point, the building masters started to try out aesthetic gimmicks.
After the Benedictines at Cluny, through their accustomation to praying in beautiful vestments, had forgotten about manual work, the foreseeable reaction was the foundation of a reform order by protesting monks. This happened around 1100 under Robert de Molesme, with the Order that would become known as the Cistercians. Central to the Cistercians stood the primary principle of St. Benedict of Nursia, namely labor.
The white monks were versatile. In response to the prohibition of all forms of sculpture, they treated the stones of their churches with the utmost care. They were great farmers and loved the water. Many Cistercian monasteries were built in solitary forest valleys with ample water. The monks cherished water as a source of energy, as the basis for fish farming, and as a means of waste disposal. And naturally, they needed water for cooking and hygiene.
Fountain House Maulbronn
In their cloisters, the monks built beautiful fountain houses for their ablutions before prayer, such as that in Maulbronn, originally from the thirteenth or fourteenth century. Only the the bottom of the three bowls is medieval, however. Other examples can be found in Zwettl and Heiligenkreuz.
Translation: Erik Eising (M.A.)